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Glossary

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#

What is 2G?

2G stands for second generation of cellular telephone technology. It was first introduced in 1992. 2G was first to use digital encryption. Data services and SMS messaging service were first offered on 2G network. Primary benefits of 2G networks were digitally encrypted phone conversations, more efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum, data services for mobile. Radio signals for 1G network were analog while radio signal on 2G network were digital.Most common 2G technology was the time division multiple access.Data transfer rates are lower than those of 3G, 4G, 5G.

What is 3G technology?

3G stands for the third generation of mobile telephone technology. 3G was introduced in 2001. 3G services work using cellular based technology, the signals are passed from phone tower to phone tower and then the tower nearest to the phone passes the signal to it. 3G was the first to enable video calls. 3G network offers a faster rate for data transfer. The speed was several times faster than its predecessors. 3G was most suitable for modern smartphones requiring constant high speed internet connection.3G provided a peak speed of upto 14Mbps and worked at frequencies upto 2.1 GHz. 3G uses less energy compared to 4G. If conserving battery life in an emergency switching to 3G can be optimal.

What is 4G?

4G stands for the fourth generation of mobile telephone technology. 4G technology builds upon 3G but offers everything at a much faster speed. 4G benefits are improved speeds, reduced latency, and crystal-clear voice calls. Standard 4G is almost five to seven times faster than 3G. 4G offers speeds of up to 150Mbps. 4G networks ensure that you can maintain stable speeds no matter how much data you need, almost everywhere. 4G networks are based on packet-switched networks. IP is used as the packet-switched network in 4G. Network security in 4G networks is improvised as compared to 3G.

What is 5G?

5G stands for the fifth generation of mobile telephone technology. It is the successor to 4G. It promises to be faster than its predecessors and opens up new use cases for mobile data. Advantages of 5G are faster speed, much lower latency and greater capacity which in turn allows many devices to be connected simultaneously. Today 5G is mainly used by early adopters. 5G networks are cutting edge though coverage is limited as of now. The full 5G rollout will happen over the next 3-5 years. As 5G network coverage will grow, and deliver the ultra fast speed and low latency that is anticipated , advanced technologies will be the game changers.

How is 5G deployed?

5G technology is an enhanced version of 4G LTE technology. 5G promises to deliver higher speed and low latency bandwidth. 5G could bring revolutionary changes in every sector. Each sector is eager to implement 5G to reap significant benefits with a competitive advantage. Operators are taking initiatives to rollout 5G deployment to make it available to more users. 5G deployment faces multiple challenges. Availability and cost of spectrum is a critical resource. 5G antennas have a limited range, this will require extra repeaters in cities and densely populated areas. As telecom operators plan to roll out 5G quickly there will be a need for skilled engineers. Operators need to have develop model for 5G deployment.

What is 5G Network Slicing?

When a network is configured to allow multiple networks virtualised or independent to be created on common physical network infrastructure it is called network slicing. Each slice is an isolated end to end network for a particular application. Each slice can be allotted based on the specific needs of the customer. Each network slice is administrated via mobile virtual network operator. A network slicing SDN is used to manage traffic flow. The network slice controller maps services and monitors the functionality between different layers.5G network slicing plays a crucial role in enabling providers to offer innovative services. The ability to offer network slicing reduces operating expenses as well as capital invested.

What is 5G NR?

5G typically refers to the fifth generation of wireless technology and NR or commonly known as New Radio is a set standard developed by the 3GPP Group (Release 15 being the first version introduced back in 2018) outlining the technology required to harness the newly-available millimeter-wave frequencies. The two frequency bands in which 5GNR operates are Frequency Range 1 ie Sub 6GHz band (410 MHz to 7125 MHz) and Frequency Range 2 ie millimeter-wave (24.25 GHz to 52.6 GHz). Over 4G LTE, 5G NR provides better spectrum utilization, faster data rates, hardware efficiency, and improved signal processing.

From a deployment standpoint, we have Non-Standalone Mode(NSA), Dynamic Spectrum Sharing(DSS), and Standalone Mode (SA). The initial deployments of 5G NR are based on NSA standards, meaning the existing 4G LTE network will operate on the control plane, and 5G NR will be introduced to the user plane. This particular standard was introduced by 3GPP keeping in mind the industry's push to faster 5G services rollout while utilising the existing 4G LTE infrastructure, currently in place. On the other hand, operators are also implementing Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) for accelerating the deployment cycle, reducing the costs, and improving spectrum utilisation . In this standard same spectrum is shared between the 5G NR and 4G LTE, while being multiplexed over time as per the user demands. Lastly, we have the Standalone Mode (SA) which is moving towards a complete 5G based network where both signaling and the information transfer are driven by a 5G cell.

Going forward, 5G will enable new services, connect new industries and devices, empower new experiences, and much more, providing mission-critical services, enhanced mobile broadband, and massive number of things.

  • Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) Applications: High device connectivity, High mobile data rates, and Mobile AR & VR applications
  • Ultra-reliable, low-latency communications (uRLLC)Applications: Autonomous vehicles, Drones, Data monitoring, Smart mfg.
  • Massive machine-type communications (mMTC)Applications: Healthcare, Industry 4.0, Logistics, Environmental monitoring, Smart farming, Smart grids

Aa

What is access network?

An access network is defined as a type of network which physically connects an end system to an edge router. Home network, enterprise network, and mobile network are three main types of access network. The home network connects a PC / web TV to an edge router usually using a modem. The modem converts the digital output into an analog format for transmission over the analog phone line. Modems nowadays allow speed up to 56 Kbps. While ADSL, ISDN, and dialup modems all use phone lines, HFC access networks are an extension of the current cable network used for broadcasting cable television. HFC requires specialised modems called cable modems. Enterprise access network or local area network (LAN) connects the end system to an edge router. Though there are many types of LAN ethernet technology is the most prevalent access technology. Mobile access networks use a radio spectrum to connect a mobile system to a base station. The base station in turn is connected to an edge router.

What are key factors for choosing aerial fibre cable installation?

Careful planning is important for fibre installation. Consideration needs to be given to the terrain and environment. Aerial cables prove to be the most cost-effective method as the existing infrastructure of the pole can be used. Saves cost to dig roads and bury cables. However, the aerial cable is delicate. It can strain or sag eventually breaking down if exposed to extreme wind, huge temperature variation, or ice loading. If it is close to electrical cables bird damage can be an issue. Also, the strength of cables and poles need to be taken into account when determining the length of the span. Local planning authorities can cause issues. Hence aerial is more suitable to areas with existing pole networks in rural environments where there are no urban restrictions.

What is AI ?

AI or Artificial intelligence is used to represent intelligence demonstrated by machines. This is not similar to the natural intelligence displayed by human beings or animals which involves consciousness and emotionality. At its core, AI is the branch of computer science that aims to simulate human intelligence in machines. AI falls under two broad categories narrow AI and artificial general intelligence. Narrow AI also referred to as "Weak AI" is an artificial intelligence that operates within a limited context and is a simulation of human intelligence. Often focussed on performing a single task brilliantly. Examples are google search, image recognition software, self-driving cars. Artificial general intelligence or strong AI is a machine with general intelligence that mimics human intelligence. Examples are smart assistants, manufacturing, and drone robots.

What is Data Analytics?

Data is available all over the internet. The process of discovering, communicating and interpreting data to discover meaningful patterns is analytics. Simply put analytics helps see insights and meaningful patterns in data. This pattern helps in effective decision making and improvements. One can find team performance, consumer behavior, diseases, and a connection between several activities. Analytics can change the way we perceive the world. Analytics needs simultaneous application of statistics, computer programming, and operations research. Specific areas within analytics are predictive analytics, prescriptive analytics, enterprise decision making, descriptive analytics, Big Data analytics, cognitive analytics, supply chain analytics, retail analytics, stock keeping and store assortment, market optimization, web analytics, fraud analytics.

Bb

What is Backhaul?

Backhaul is a transport network that connects the core network (routes data in various sub-networks) and access network (connects end devices to the network). Backhaul can be wired (via optical fibre cable/copper cable/ coaxial cable/ethernet cable) or wireless (via Free space optics (FSO)/Point to Point microwave radio transmission such as terrestrial or satellite/ Point to Multipoint microwave radio transmission such as LDMS, WiFi, WiMAX). Wireless backhaul offers cost efficiency, ease of deployment and high capacity. On the other hand, Wireline backhaul offers endless capacity, better life span, reliability but require significant investment on the network deployment side.

Use cases of Backhaul:

a) Mobile Backhaul: As more users keep coming online and data-heavy applications increase in number, the global mobile data traffic is going up. This demands broader network coverage and larger capacity/bandwidth. To address these challenges service providers have to either put more macro towers or increase spectrum spaces or develop newer technologies such as LTE/LTE-A to utilise the spectrum more efficiently, all of which is capital intensive. Another inexpensive solution is mobile backhaul which essentially is low powered small towers with lesser footprint for catering to the user and their needs more efficiently. These small cells can be Femto (indoor cell for the residential area; 10m to 1km) / Pico (indoor cell for small businesses; range 200m) / Micro (for rural areas; range 35kms) / Metro (for urban areas; less than 100m) for extending macrocell service.
b) Private Networks: On-premise networks that are owned privately have dramatically enabled organisations to transition from expensive legacy based voice-only networks to media and applications serving networks. With high user density and data demand, wireless backhaul networks like LTE (pico/femto cells) work best for such environments.
c) Critical Infrastructure Networks: Such networks demand communications to be secure and available at all times with ultra-low latency. Existing mission-critical networks like TETRA, Tetrapol, etc. are voice-centric and going forward to serve the needs the future will be around 4G/5G technologies. To deliver high-performing applications like real-time video, high-resolution imagery, multimedia messaging, situational awareness etc. backhaul support will be a must.

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain is a growing list of blocks or records linked together using cryptography. Each block has a cryptographic hash of its previous block, transaction data, and a timestamp. Since each block contains information of the previous block and forms a chain. Each new block reinforces the data of previous blocks therefore blockchains are resistant to modification of their data. Blockchain technology accounts for trust and security in many ways. New blocks are always stored linearly and chronologically. After a block has been added at the end of the blockchain it is very difficult to go back and alter the contents of the block. Currently, there is a vast number of blockchain-based projects. One example is voting in democratic elections.

What is Big Data?

Big data is a collection of huge volume of data that grows exponentially. Big data is so huge in size and complexity that none of the traditional data management tools can store or process it efficiently. Big data is of three types structured, unstructured, semi-structured. Data stored, accessed, and processed in a fixed format is termed structured data. Data is said to be unstructured when it is in unknown form. It can be heterogeneous data containing a combination of text, image, videos, etc. Semi-structured data contains both forms of data. An example of semi-structured data can be data in an XML file. Big data has four characteristics volume, variety, velocity, and variability. The process of uncovering hidden information from big data is called big data analytics.

What is BSS?

BSS or Business Support System are components of telcos used to run business operations towards customers. Combined with OSS, BSS is used to support end-to-end telecom services. BSS has its data and service responsibilities. BSS is responsible for taking orders, payment issues, revenues, etc. It encompasses four processes product management, order management, revenue management, and customer management. In BSS product management supports product development, sales, and management of offers. Customer management supports all requirements of partner management. Revenue management is billing, charging, and settlement. Order management is normally associated with OSS though BSS is the business driver for order fulfillment and provisioning.

Cc

What is cloud computing?

Simply put cloud computing is o demands access to computing resources- applications, servers (physical or virtual), data storage, development tools, networking capabilities hosted at a remote data center managed by a cloud services provider or CSP. Typically you pay only for cloud computing services you use, this helps lower operating costs and run infrastructure more efficiently. Not all clouds are the same. No one type of cloud computing is right for everyone. There are three ways to deploy cloud services public cloud, private cloud, or hybrid cloud. Cloud computing is helping a lot to both businesses small or large. Cloud computing companies provide storage database server networking.

Who is communication service provider (CSP)?

Companies that offer telecommunications, media, entertainment, applications, and other information related services over a physical network are called communication Service Providers or CSP's. A CSP transports information electronically and includes public and private companies in telecom, cable internet, satellite, and managed services businesses. Some communication service providers have a presence in multiple areas. Many CSP are telecommunication providers. These communication service providers can be sub-categorized into wired service providers and cell phone service providers. Some CSP specializes in entertainment and media for example satellite television or digital cable. The last communication service provider (CSP) is an internet/ Web service provider.

What is cyber security?

Cyber security can also be refered as information technology security. Cyber security is body of technologies, processes and practices implemented to protect networks, devices, programs and data from unauthorized access , attack and damage. Cyber sercurrity is important as government, military, medical organizaton, financial institutions store large amount of sensitive data on computers and other devices. This highly sensitive information is of great importance. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) drafts guidelines for risk assesment framework for cyber security. It recommends continuous monitoring and real time assessments and data focused approach to security as opposed to perimeter based model.

Dd

Who is Digital Service Provider (DSP)?

Any company that distributes media online can be termed as "Digital Service Provider" or DSP. In reference to telcos, DSP is an organization that has moved from offering core telecom services to providing broadband access, content, apps, services that are sold directly from the device. DSP isn't just offering shared access to common utility but it's a real-time business that deals with transactions everyday, manages a high volume of data traffic, has multiple devices per user. DSPs conduct about 80% of their transactions online through digital channels. The transition from CSP to DSP has been due to the mass consumption of cellular data. The rise of OTT applications and social media has impacted the way consumers use mobile phones.

What is Data Analytics?

The process of exploring and then analyzing large sets of data to find patterns, discover trends, correlate, and derive valuable insights to make predictions is called data analytics. Modern tools and techniques are available to perform data analytics. Data analytics helps in improved decision making, better customer service, efficient operations, and effective marketing. Data analytics process involves understanding the problem, collecting data, data cleaning, and finally data exploration and analysis. Tools available for data analytics are python, R, Tableau, Power BI, Qlikview, Apache Spark, SAS. Data analytics is used in almost all sectors of business like retail, healthcare, manufacturing, banking sector, logistics

What is data centre?

Data center is a physical facility used to house critical applications and data. Key components of a data center design has routers, switches, firewalls, storage systems, servers, and application delivery controllers. These components manage and store business-critical data hence data center security is critical in data center design. Data center components need significant infrastructure to support the hardware and software of the center. This needs power subsystems, uninterruptible power supplies, cooling systems, ventilation, fire suppression, generators, and connection to external networks. Data center infrastructure has ANSI/TIA-942 as the most adopted standard for data center design.

What is data network?

A system that transfers data between network access points through data switching, system control, and interconnection of transmission lines is called a data network. There are two ways in which data signals are sent across a network circuit switched and packet switched. Data network systems are used for local area networks within offices and businesses. LAN(Local Area Network) or a WAN (Wide Area Network) are two basic types of data network services. Peer-to-peer and network shared environment are types of network connections available. Data network advantages are shared resources, easier communication, collaborative working, access to centrally stored software, and access to a central database.

What is data transfer?

"Exchange of large files between systems or organizations is referred to as data transfer. Most often data transfer is used to share data securely among business partners, government agencies, suppliers for cooperative purposes. Data transfer that involves hundreds or thousands of files needs to be reported and tracked to make sure that data is copied completely and accurately. Since data is moving beyond the enterprise perimeter care must be taken to secure data. The secure data transfer process ensures the organization meets compliance requirements. Performance is also important as data transfer often involves very large files that can take a long time to process. "

What is digital transformation?

The integration of digital technology into all areas of business that results in fundamental changes to how businesses operate and deliver value to the customer is called digital transformation. Digital transformation will look different for every company. It's a cultural change that requires organizations to continuously challenge the status quo and experiment often. IT plays an important role in digital transformation strategy. It is essential to address the complexity of adopting a new digital offering while re-structuring legacy systems. This is where a digital transformation company can help. Digital transformation is a massive undertaking when done right it produces a fast moving digital future.

Ee

What is edge computing?

Edge computing architecture is a distributed information technology (IT) in which client data is processed at the edge of the network as close to the originating source as possible. Edge computing technology moves partial storage and computing resources out of the central data center and closer to the data source. Edge computing companies minimize bandwidth usage and reduce latency. The concept of edge computing isn't new it's rooted in the decades-old idea of remote computing where it was more efficient and reliable to have computing resources at the desired location rather than rely on a centralised single location. Edge computing solutions are available for all businesses some examples are video surveillance for showrooms, predictive analysis for equipment maintenance.

What is edge network?

Distributed computing paradigm to bring computation and data storage close to the point of request to deliver low latency and save on bandwidth is called edge networking. The goal of edge network computing is to move physical computation away from data centers to the edge of the network which reduces strain on data centers. An edge network is created by decentralizing data centers and exploiting smart objects and network gateways to provide services in place of cloud computing. The edge network architecture conserves network resources by off loading network traffic which reduces network latency and bottlenecks. The edge high-speed data network is key to a successful rollout of 5G networks.

Ff

What is fibre deployment?

"Consumers are waiting to be connected to 5G as it promises a high speed broadband. There is a promise of a new reality in self-driving cars, drones, virtual reality and home automation. Telecom providers are competing to lay fibre optic cable as quickly as possible. Mainly there are three challenges in fibre network deployment. First is distance, a fibre optic cable needs to be re-amplified at an inline amplification shelter. This is expensive to build and maintain. Secondly, outside of major metropolitan areas cost is a setback as fibre deployment is expensive and ROI cannot be achieved. The third is environmental barriers. In varied geography, a wide range of compositions awaits installers under the surface. Plans have to be effectively drafted for mountainous regions or frequently dangerous weather conditions. "

What is FTTH?

"Fibre to the home refers to a network where fibre optic cable is used to deliver internet connection from the central facility to the home. FTTH network uses optical fibre as last mile connectivity over DSLs or coaxial wires. With FTTH homeowners are provided with faster internet and increased bandwidth. This helps in streaming higher quality content and the possibility of more devices connected over the internet simultaneously. FTTH is profitable to network builders also as the core fibre technology is future ready. Fibre can transmit information 400X further and 10X faster compared to copper wires. FIbre is more secure, reliable, and durable. Also they last 30-50 years. "

What is FTTx?

"FTTx refers to Fibre to the X (where X is a particular name). It is a telecom network architecture used within the local loop and delivers broadband connections to homes, businesses and organizations. Legacy copper based networks are being replaced with fibre optic cable network due to benefits in speed and capacity that comes with fibre. There are two main groups of FTTx architectures, FTTP and FTTC. FTTP i.e. Fibre to the premise can be further categorized into FTTH (Fibre to the Home) or FTTB (Fibre to the Building ) according to where the fibre ends. FFTC (Fibre to the Cabinet/Node) system where fibre is terminated within 1000 ft of customer premises. FTTC is further classified as FTTN (Fibre to Neighbourhood) or FTTdp (Fibre to distribution point). "

Hh

What is a hotspot?

Physical location where people can access the internet, typically using Wi-Fi, via a wireless local area network is called a hotspot. It can be private or public. Connecting to a hotspot device is a simple process. Depending on the type of hotspot you maybe on either open, unsecured, or paid wireless network you maybe asked to sign-up for an account or use a paid service. There is a risk is being connected to the internet via a hotspot it can make us vulnerable to hackers and identity thieves. When using public wifi hotspot make sure to connect only to reputable providers. If the security of public wi-fi hotspots is a concern you could consider creating a virtual private network (VPN) as it allows to use internet through an encrypted connection.

What is HSPA?

HSPA stands for High-Speed Packet Access. HSPA is a widely deployed and popular broadband technology. HSPA includes both HSDPA and HSUPA technologies. HSPA builds upon third-generation i.e 3G WCDMA. HSPA reduces latency significantly. It gives carriers a mobile broadband technology that is efficient and that can further evolve to HSPA+ that fulfills customer's needs for advanced wireless technology. Data rates of 14 Mbit/s in downlink and 5.76 Mbit/s in the uplink were the specifications supported by the first HSPA. This provided five times the capacity in downlink and twice system capacity in uplink as compared to the original WCDMA.

Ii

What is ISP?

Companies that provide internet connections and services to individuals and organizations are called Internet Service Providers (ISP). ISP may also provide e-mail accounts, software packages, a personal website, or a home page. ISP can host a website or build one. Initially, internet service was limited to government agencies or specific university departments. The technology was developed through the World Wide Web in the 1980s to provide access to the general public. Behind all of this is multi-layered web of connections. Local ISP sells access to a customer but pays larger ISP for access. These larger ISPs in turn pay to even larger ISPs for access. The trail leads to Tier 1 carriers who can access every point without having to pay for access. These Tier 1 companies own the infrastructure.

What is IoT?

Internet of things (IoT) is becoming an increasingly used acronym in conversation. Simply put it is the concept of connecting any device with on/off switch to the internet. Any object can be converted to an internet of things (IoT) device if it can be connected to the internet and controlled to communicate information. The term 'Internet of Things was first phrased by Kevin Ashton in 1999. The term IoT is used for devices that generally are not expected to have an internet connection, and that can communicate with the network independently without human intervention. Initially, IoT was recommended to business and manufacturing, where it was also known as machine-to-machine but now it is filing our homes and offices with smart devices.

Ll

What is LTE?

LTE or Long Term Evolution is the name given to the development of the air interface of a cellular mobile communication system. Also known as 4G. LTE provides an evolution of functionality, increased speed, and general performance improvement compared to 3G. Download speed is 10 times faster than 3G. LTE paved the way for several new technologies. They enable LTE to operate more efficiently concerning the use of spectrum and provide a higher rate of data transmission. OFDM, i.e., Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex technology, is incorporated into LTE to enable high data bandwidths to be transmitted efficiently. MIMO, i.e., Multiple Input Multiple Output for using additional signal paths to advantage thus increasing throughput. SAE,i.e., System Architecture Evolution to achieve performance improvement benchmarks.

What is last mile connectivity?

The term last mile connectivity actually originated as a way to describe transportation infrastructure. The complex, inefficient route a traveler must take before the destination is known as the last mile problem. Thinking of that in terms of network connections and data packets shows how last mile connectivity can present problems for overall network performance. Data will need to hop, skip and jump along multiple connections before reaching its final destination. In cases where these connections have lower bandwidth and involve routers with lower throughputs can significantly reduce overall data transfer speeds. Last mile connectivity has become a greater challenge as network speeds have improved.

What is Latency

Latency is the delay in the network. Latency in the network is the time it takes for data to reach its destination across the network. Usually, a round trip for data is measured i.e. it is the length of time taken for data that you feed into one end of the network to emerge on the other end and back again. This is done because TCP sends acknowledgment bits back to the sender and this is crucial. Due to this latency has a high impact on performance i.e. latency drives throughput. Latency drives the responsiveness of the conversation. For IP networks, latency drives the maximum throughput of a network. High network latency decreases communication bandwidth.

Mm

What is mobile app?

A mobile application or mobile app is an application specifically designed to run on a mobile device i.e. smartphone or tablet computer. Mobile apps are small software units that manage to provide users with quality services and experiences even though they have limited function. Key mobile app development technology is native apps, web apps, and hybrid apps. Most popular types of mobile apps are gaming apps these are apps that a mobile version of stationary games. Business or productivity apps that help perform a complex task on the go. Educational apps include a mobile app that helps users gain new skills and knowledge. Lifestyle apps span across mobile apps that focus on personal lifestyle.

What is Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO)?

MVNO represents Mobile Virtual Network Operator. An MVNO does not have its radio network instead relies upon another operator to provide mobile communication services to its users. Also, it can be said that MVNO is a format of subcontract to an operator (MNO). MVNO help enrich the market with a greater range of offers. MNO can have multiple MVNO. There are two types of MVNO full MVNO and light MVNO. Full MVNO's manage core network and customer service. They have their equipment to route calls, SMS, data. They also produce their own SIM cards and have dialing resources. Light MVNO focus only on customer service. Their strength lies in adapting to the needs of a specific community of clients.

What is multi mode fibre?

Optical fibre designed to carry multiple light rays simultaneously is called multi-mode fibre. In longer extents modes are likely to disperse so multi-mode fibre is used to transmit over shorter distances. Multi-mode fibre is mostly used within a building or on campus. Glass fibres diameter is in the range of 50-100 microns in multi-mode fibre. Multi-mode fibre giver high bandwidth at high speeds over moderate distances. Light waves spread across various modes or paths while they travel in the core of the cable. Multi-mode equipment is less expensive as compared to single-mode. Since it has high capacity and reliability it is used for backbone applications in buildings.

Nn

What is network monetization?

Due to increasing competition, many telecommunication companies are facing stagnating or declining revenues. In this increasingly difficult landscape, telecom operators must rethink their investment strategy and make smarter and value-creating decisions. Network monetization requires structured design as well as an analytical approach to ensure that service providers can fully monetize their networks. There is a need to integrate connectivity services with IT/ cloud ecosystems. Network monetization will increase revenue for service providers. Network monetization needs assessment to produce tailored services, solutions, and programs to target an appropriate customer base. Network monetization using as-a-service model is increasingly gaining popularity with wireless enterprise and wholesale segments.

What is network speed?

Network speed is the rate of transfer of data from a source system to a destination system. The delay in data while moving through a network is called latency. Latency is the real culprit in reducing network speed. Many factors that contribute to this mainly are the distance between two systems, number of hops, large packet size, jitter, or network congestion. As more number of data packets are retransmitted over the long distance they consume network bandwidth and degrade network speed. 5G is the emerging trend that supports real-time applications at the edge to reduce latency and increase network speed.

What is NFV?

NFV or Network Function Virtualisation basically refers to virtualising proprietary hardware like routers, switches, load balancers, WAN accelerators, and firewalls, etc. into software-driven functions that run in a virtual machine (VM). In comparison to traditional data centres that are vendor-specific, purpose-built, expensive, tedious to build, difficult to upgrade, and slow in deployment, NFV resolves the issue by decoupling the hardware from the software.

Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) typically requires Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware like x86 servers with storage and switching to virtualise all the networking functions to form a cloud data centre.

The NFV architecture has four major components:

a) NFVI - Network Function Architecture Infrastructure (NFVI) is a resource pool of storage, computes and network function resources in the NFV environment. It divides into three components hardware resources (RAM, Servers, and NAS, etc.), virtualisation layer that enables the software to progress independently from the software using specialised tools (KVM, QEMU, VMware, Open Stack etc.), and virtual resources (virtual Compute, virtual storage & virtual network).
b) VNF - Virtualised network function (VNF) are software implementations of network functions. VNFs can be combined together to establish a full-scale telecommunications service, also referred to as service chaining. Examples of VNF includes vIMS, vRouter, vFirewall etc.
c) MANO- Management and Network Orchestration unit (MANO) comprises of three parts, virtualised infrastructure manager (controls and manages the interaction of VNFs with NFVI network, compute and storage resources. It also has necessary deployment and monitoring tools for the virtualisation layer), VNF Manager(Manages the lifecycle of VNF instances. It is responsible to initialise, update, query, scale and terminate VNF instances), Orchestrator (Manages the lifecycle of network services like instantiation, policy management, performance measurement and KPI monitoring).
d) OSS/BSS - OSS deals with network management, fault management, configuration management, service management and element management. BSS deals with Customer Management, Operations Management, Order Management, Billing and Revenue Management.

Oo

What is ORAN?

Open Radio Access Network is a modern wireless network architecture that enables vendor interoperability, flexibility, and agility for service providers by getting rid of integrated proprietary hardware and software. In comparison to the legacy networks, this solution enables disaggregation of hardware and software with virtualisation, open interfaces, and cloud-based software solutions. The organisations currently working on the development of open RAN standards are Telecom Infra Project (TIP) and O-RAN Alliance.

A typical mobile network comprises of a core network (where service requests are made), an access network (that interacts directly with the user interface), and a transport network (connects core and access) or commonly known as backhaul. Both the core network and access network comprise of specialised software and hardware components. In particular, the Open RAN primarily focuses on the openness and interoperability of RAN elements. A legacy RAN network has all the electronics on one side (BBU, Base Band Unit + RU, Radio Unit) with antennas at the top of the tower, connected by RF cables which caused signal attenuation and cabling issues. Transitioning from 3G to 4G, this approach was revamped across the industry and the RU was moved closer to the antenna resulting in the reduction of RF signal losses. RU was now referred to as RRU or Remote Radio Unit comprising of proprietary hardware elements and BBU comprising of proprietary software running on proprietary hardware, connected via proprietary interface or commonly know as CPRI ie Common Public Radio Interfaces.

Coming to the next step ie virtualised RAN or vRAN, the BBU becomes a proprietary software with virtualised network functions that run on Commercial off-the-shelf (CTOS) servers while the RRU and connecting interface remain proprietary.

In Open RAN approach:-

a) RRU is a Commercial off-the-shelf (CTOS) based hardware making it vendor agnostic
b) BBU is proprietary software with virtualised network functions that run on Commercial off-the-shelf (CTOS) servers
c) The interface between RRU and BBU becomes an open interface ie allowing any vendor software to run on any vendor hardware

What is optical fibre?

Optical fibre is a thin, flexible, strand-like material made of pure glass, through which light signals or data can be sent over longer distances at faster speeds. A strand of fibre 1/10th the thickness of human hair. An optical fibre has three layers. The core is the innermost area through which the light travels. Cladding is another layer of glass wrapped on the outside of the core. Its job is to keep the light signal inside the core. Coatings are multi-layers of plastics applied to preserve strength, absorb shock and protect it from environmental changes.

Light in OF travels through the core by constantly bouncing off from the cladding. This happens because the cladding doesn’t absorb any light from the core and bounces off all the light back to the core. We might expect a beam of light to leak out of edges but when light hits another glass-like clad, which has a lower refractive index than the core, it acts as a mirror and the light gets reflected back to the core leading to Total Internal Reflection. Total internal reflection is absolutely critical for the functioning of the optical fibre.

For TIR to occur the following conditions need to be met – First, light is travelling from a denser (High RI) medium to a rarer (Low RI) medium. Hence the refractive index of the core is kept higher than the clad. Second, AOI should be greater than the critical angle.

There are 2 types of optical fibres Single-mode and Multi-mode – in SM fibre, only one mode or ray of light is allowed to pass through the core. Hence core is smaller in diameter, around 9 microns. MM fibre allows more than one mode or ray of light to pass through it. It has a wider core diameter of 62.5 microns. SM fibre is less expensive, has low loss of strength or attenuation, and can be used for longer distances. Single-mode is the most widely used fibre type.

What is optical fibre cable?

An optical fibre cable is a cable type that has a few to hundreds of optical fibres bundled together within a protective plastic coating. They help carry digital data in the form of light pulses across large distances at faster speeds. For this, they need to be installed or deployed either underground or aerially. Standalone fibres cannot be buried or hanged so fibres are bunched together as cables for the transmission of data. This is done to protect the fibre from stress, moisture, temperature changes and other externalities. There are three main components of a optical fibre cable, core (It carries the light and is made of pure silicon dioxide (SiO2) with dopants such as germania, phosphorous pentoxide, or alumina to raise the refractive index; Typical glass cores range from as small as 3.7um up to 200um), Cladding (Cladding surrounds the core and has a lower refractive index than the core, it is also made from the same material as the core; 1% refractive index difference is maintained between the core and cladding; Two commonly used diameters are 125µm and 140µm) and Coating (Protective layer that absorbs shocks, physical damage and moisture; The outside diameter of the coating is typically either 250µm or 500µm; Commonly used material for coatings are acrylate,Silicone, carbon, and polyimide).

An optical fibre cable is made up of the following components: Optical fibres – ranging from one to many. Buffer tubes (with different settings), for protection and cushioning of the fibre. Water protection in the tubes – wet or dry. A central strength member (CSM) is the backbone of all cables. Armoured tapes for stranding to bunch the buffer tubes and strength members together. Sheathing or final covering to provide further protection.

The five main reasons that make this technology innovation disruptive are fast communication speed, infinite bandwidth & capacity, low interference, high tensile strength and secure communication. The major usescases of optical fibre cables include intenet connectivity, computer networking, surgery & dentistry, automotive industry, telephony, lighting & decorations, mechanical inspections, cable television, military applications and space.

What is Optical Fibre manufacturing process?

The optical fibre manufacturing process comprises of four major processes - Core preparation, Core rod draw, Clad preparation, Quality and grading

1) Core Preparation : Core is the heart of OF and governs the performance of OFs. It is prepared through a soot deposition process on an alumina rod. Its made with silica and germanium in a fixed ration. Germanium is used to increase the refractive index of core glass and to make it denser than the clad. An aluminium mandrel is taken. This is to deposit the soot of chemicals over it which would give us a soot preform. Through a vapour deposition process in a trailer like structure, soot is deposited over the rod.Chemicals and gases are released from the burners and are deposited on the rod.

a) Core – Soot deposition : After the soot deposition, the soot preform is hung in the cooling cabinet & on cooling the rod is removed from the center.The output is cylindrical mass of whitish soot.
b) Soot Preform Output : Now the soot preform is ready for sintering. Sintering is a process of turning a powdered material into a solid mass by means of heating or pressure. It basically fuses particles together. By this process, the soot is consolidated into a solid mass of glass.
c) Core preform – soot sintering : Output is a shrunk version of soot preform, but transparent. This is the core preform
d) Core preform : The core preform is then soaked at 1050 degrees for 18 hours, to release entrapped gases

2) Core Rod Draw : A draw tower is a building, 6/7 floor tall with drawing or pulling equipment starting from the top floor to the ground floor. It usually has one process on one floor.

a) Draw Process : The core preform is loaded on to the top of the draw tower. It is placed in an induction furnace. With controlled flow of heat and gases, gravity pulls out 7 rods out of each preform in around 3 hours
b) Core Rods: Then core rods go through a series of tests – physical checks for bends or bubbles, diameter checks and refractive index checks. After the quality go ahead, the rods are then prepared for cladding process. They are cleaned and prepared for hanging.

3) Cladding - After the core rods are prepped for cladding process, they are used for soot deposition. The soot process and composition in clad making is different from the core process. Here the soot is Sicl 4 – Silicon tetrachloride plus H2 and O2. It doesn’t have germanium because germanium is known to increase the RI & clad RI should be lesser than the core. Soot deposition happens through OVD or outside vapour deposition process in the same trailer like structure. Chemicals and gases are released from the burners and are deposited on the core rods.

a) Soot deposition for cladding process: Soot preforms are then kept in the cabinets for cooling. The soot preform appears white in color. Through a similar sintering process, the soot preform is converted into a wholesome glass preform. This time we can see the two layers – the core & the clad. It is 99.99% pure.
b) Glass preforms : After this the preform undergoes soaking to release entrapped gases. It happens at 1050 0 for around 18 hours. This process doesn’t change the physical or chemical properties of the preform in any manner. The last step in the process is the coning of the preform. This is done to reduce the diameter of the preform. Since quality of preform defines the performance of the OF, a rigorous process of testing which includes – particle count, optical parameters, physical parameters & cone length testing
c) Completed glass preforms with coning
d) Fibre draw process, Glass Preform to Fibre: Glass preform is loaded on to the draw towers and is passed through an induction furnace. They are coated with silica is put on the edges to avoid burning. The temperature in the furnace is 2200 C and inert gases are injected to melt the glass into fibre. From 100 mm preform, 250 micron fibre is drawn. The fibre strand coming out of the induction furnace is simmering hot. It is then passed through the annealing furnace, which enables gradual cooling to reduce residual stress. 900 C is the stress relieving point of the glass. Hence its first cooled to this temperature and then helium is used to cool it to 70 C. After cooling, the fibre needs to be coated. It has 2 kinds of coating – primary or inner layer which is soft and secondary or outer layer which is hard. First fibre is passed through the primary coating tube and then it goes through 2 gauges for diameter & strength checks. After these checks, the fibre goes through the secondary coating tube and a UV curing to protect it from environmental damage. A second diameter check happens after the curing stage. At the lowest level of the tower, there is a pinch wheel to move the fibre and wrap it in a big spool. Each and every fibre is tested for optical parameters like attenuation and spooled into smaller spools called bobbins. After the physical testing, the bobbins are sent for D2 soaking. D2 is contained in large cylinders and bobbins are placed in these for 16-18 hours to replace the hydrogen ions.
e) D2 soaking: This gives us the final bobbins with standard colour. According to customer requirement, the fibres coloured.
f) Coloring Process: After another, but final check, bobbins are numbered and placed in the Robo storage – an automated system for storage. These bobbins are then packed and dispatched to customers.

4) Quality Testing

a) Mechanical testing lab – Tests the mechanical parameters of OFs – tensile strength with bends, tensile strength in degree of curing and colour matching. Tensile strength standard is >4.8 kg but Sterlite fibres has > 6.5 kg. We also do a long length (20m fibre) tensile strength test along a fibre to test signal strength at various lengths
b) Environmental testing lab – tests fibres under all kinds of temperature and humidity conditions like Temperature ranges between -60 to 85 C, Water immersion and hot water ageing, Dry heat and damp heat, T and RH cycle, Jelly ageing, Thermal shock, Wash spray or insecticides, Extended water ageing tube and Fibre failing conditions.

What is OSS?

OSS full form Operations Support System is a software component to monitor, control, analyze and manage the services on the network. These types of software along with BSS support all customer-facing activities, which include ordering, billing, and support. To develop and implement OSS systems information technology (IT) expertise is required. Integrators have to ensure the software works with network infrastructure to pass on important information regarding the fulfillment and delivery of services. OSS requires heavy development if any services are to be launched. These are typically done by IT staff. Ultimately its purpose is to ensure efficiency in-network, profit in services, and happy customers.

What is OSS BSS?

OSS or Operations support system basically deals with the technology operations management side of the network. On the other hand, the BSS or Business support system deals with the business operations management side of the network. OSS consists of specialised software and hardware to monitor, analyse, configure and manage all operations activities of a network. This includes Network Configuration and Management, Service Delivery (Inventory, Activation, and Provisioning), Service Assurance, and Fault Management & Customer Management. BSS consists of customer-facing business operations aspects such as billing, service fulfilment, revenue management, customer management, order management, and charging, etc. of a network. This includes Customer Relationship Management and Telecommunications Billing. Usually, OSS and BSS exist as a single entity for most operators helping them control costs, find new revenue streams, and enhance customer experiences.

What is OTT?

OTT stands for Over-the-Top. It refers to a new delivery method of film and TV content over the internet without the need for traditional broadcast, cable, or satellite pay-TV providers. It enables streaming across different devices on demand. OTT content is easily accessible and hence it is so popular. The only requirement is a high speed internet connection and a device with apps and browsers to be connected to the internet. OTT can be accessed on a mobile, personal computer, and smart TVs. Advantages of OTT are consumer has control over the content, user experience, brand, and audience. OTT has made content ad-free. OTT reaches directly to the targeted audience and delivers a premium video experience. Consumers can find precisely what they want to watch and pay for content and services that they want.

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What is pFTTx?

FTTx ie Fibre to the x is a collective term used for various optical fibre delivery topologies categorized by the infrastructure deployed for last-mile/access connectivity (The variable x is here represents the deployed infrastructure ie B for buildings, H for Homes, P for Premise, N for Node, O for Offices etc.). On the other hand, pFTTx ie Programable FTTx adds a layer of software intelligence to the existing monolithic white-box-based FTTx infrastructure. It can be simply referred to as an SDN-NFV, micro-services-oriented, cloud-based network solution that brings more flexibility, cost efficiency and service excellence to digital networks. It drastically reduces time to market for new digital services, sets the ball rolling for edge computing by disaggregating broadband networks and re-architecting central offices. This technology will shape the future of broadband while connecting millions of people and devices seamlessly.

Some of the key features of pFTTx include: Programmability - across hardware and software empowers operators to have better control; Open ecosystem - through API interfaces defined by the community allows true vendor-neutrality; Disaggregation - of hardware and software allows launching new services up to 8-10 times faster, using cloud delivery models and technologies; COTS deployment – COTS brings flexibility to the procurement and integration of network equipment; Zero-touch provisioning - automates regular functions keeping human intervention to a minimum.

Business benefits of pFTTx include:

a) Reduction in hardware and software costs with white boxes at the edge for RAN, GPON/XGSPON/NG-PON2
b) Service providers can have complete control over their own network and can solve their business problems and innovate as required
c) With last-mile network becoming programmable and agile, and with the control over translating business requirements to technical features, the infrastructure of the service providers will become lock-in free
d) Open infrastructure at the last mile significantly reduces the time-to-market and leads to revenue growth
e) Faster roll-out of premium and innovative services lead to an increase in average revenue per user
f) Programmable and agile network ensure a better quality of experience, reducing subscriber churn

What is photonics?

Photons are particles of light. The science and technology of generating, detecting, and controlling photons and light waves are called photonics. We cannot see the entire electromagnetic spectrum but visible and invisible light waves are a part of everyday life. You can explore the universe, cure diseases, or even solve crimes by using the characteristics of the waves and photons. Rainbow is only a small part of the entire light wave range which is called the electromagnetic spectrum. Photonics studies a wide variety of wavelengths, from gamma rays to radio that includes X-rays, UV, and infrared light. Photonics opens a world of possibilities limited only by imagination.

What is Private enterprise network?

A private enterprise network is a type of network that allows organisations to place micro towers, edge routers,small cells, and other network infrasture on-site that can be controlled and managed by them locally, typically isolating it from the internet and other public network. As organisations need to manage large amounts of data internally private enterprise network helps overcome challenges of high latency, range limitations, network congestion, inablity to control & automate QoS, information security and cost of infrastructure. These networks usually run on shared spectrums for eg Citizens Broadband Radio Service (CBRS) ie 3.5 GHz shared access band and the global unlicensed 5 GHz band.

Private Enterprise Networks can run on :-

a) Licensed Spectrum - Carriers can license their spectrum to an end-user organization or third party, or they can build and operate a Private LTE network as a service.
b) Shared Spectrum - End-user organizations can operate Private LTE networks using spectrum that is lightly licensed but shared (Example: CBRS, 3.5 GHz)
c) Unlicensed Spectrum - End-user organizations or carriers can operate Private LTE networks in unlicensed spectrum, such as the UNII-3 band used for Wi-Fi (Example: MulteFire). Carriers also can use this spectrum with carrier aggregation to expand their bandwidth (Example: LTE-U, LAA).

Apart from enterprise networks other examples of private network include home networks, mission-critical infrastructure (eg electricity distribution grids,powerplants etc.) ,venue services (airports,stadiums,hospitals,ports etc.),industry 4.0, enterprise IoT, data centres and virtual private network (VPN).

As Private Enterprise Networks evolve they will be the key enabler for 5G and IoT adoption. In order to harness the potential of Private LTE and 5G we will need to develop new innovative ecosystems that will by collaborative community.

a) Target the Highest Value Customer Applications
b) Understand the Entire End-to-End Customer Experience:
c) Look for Non-Conflicting Business Models That Encourage Collaboration
d) Build Open Collaboration / Align Partner Behaviors

What is public wi-fi?

Public wi-fi is found in popular places like airports, coffee shops, malls, restaurants, and hotels. It allows free access to the internet. These hotspots are widespread. While business owner feels they're providing value to the customer, security of these networks is lax. There is a tremendous number of risks that go along with public wi-fi. The most common threat is called Man-in-the-Middle(MitM). MitM attack in the form of eavesdropping. Attackers use public wi-fi for malware distribution, or create malicious hotspots or engage in wi-fi snooping and sniffing. To stay protected on public wi-fi disable file sharing. Visit sites with HTTPS only. Use a VPN to make sure your public wi-fi connections are private eg. Norton Secure.

Ss

What is SDN?

SDN or commonly know as Software Defined Networking is a unique network architecture approach that helps to virtualize the network by separating the control plane (that manages the network) from the data plane (where the traffic flows). In contrast to traditional networking where integrated hardware and software is used to direct traffic across the network, SDN uses a smart controller running specialised software to centrally manage all network traffic in the datacentre and a series of routers & switches that forward packets of traffic.

SDN comprises of three basic networking layers namely infrastructure layer/data plane which contains the network forwarding equipment/device comprising of the networking equipment. The second layer is known as the control layer/control plane which provides forwarding instructions and a set of configurations to the infrastructure layer. The layer is responsible for configuring the infrastructure layer by receiving a service request from the third layer called the application layer/management plane. The control layer maps the service request onto the infrastructure layer in the most optimum way possible, thus dynamically configuring it. Coming to the application layer, this is where cloud, business, and management applications place their demands for the network onto the control layer. Each of these layers and their application side are programmable interfaces designed to be OPEN. OPEN means they can have multiple vendor's equipment on the infrastructure layer, multiple vendor's components of control on the control layer, and multiple vendor's applications on the application layer.

The key advantages of Software Defined Networking (SDN) are:- Centralized network control, Network Programmability, Dynamic upscaling and downscaling of network resources, Openness, Dedicated support for specialised applications & use cases, and Individual security policy support at each node. Over the years SDN (Software Defined Networking) has evolved from just being deployed in datacentre networks to now, SD-WAN (Software-Defined Wide Area Network), Microsegmentation, and NFV (Network Function Virtualisation).

What is single mode fibre?

Optical fibre designed to carry out a single mode of light i.e. transverse mode is called single-mode optical fibre (SMF). Single-mode fibre is also known as uni-mode optical fibre and the single-mode optical waveguide. Single-mode fibre is best at retaining the fidelity of every light pulse over long distances. Hence Single-mode fibre has higher bandwidth. Single-mode fibre has a core diameter between 8 and 10.5 µm and a cladding diameter of 125 µm. Single-mode fibres are chemically and physically treated to give special properties such as dispersion-shifted fibre and nonzero dispersion-shifted fibre.

What is a smart city?

Smart city is an urban area where different types of electronic methods and sensors collect data. Insights gained from that data are used to improve the operations across the smart city. Data is collected from citizens, buildings, devices then it is processed and analyzed to monitor and manage traffic, transportation, power plants, utilities, waste water supply networks, information systems, and community services. Smart city concept involves information technology and communication technology across various physical layers to optimize the efficiency of operations and services in the city. Information and communication technology is used to enhance quality, performance in urban areas to reduce costs and resource consumption.

What is streaming?

Today anyone with a fast internet connection can watch movies in high-definition or make a video call over the internet. This possible because of streaming technology. Streaming is the continuous transmission of video or audio files from a server to a client. Basically streaming is happens when consumers watch TV or listen to podcasts on the internet. Streaming happens in real-time, it is more efficient than downloading files. In streaming data is sent over the internet, audio and video data is broken down into smaller data packets. Each packet contains a small piece of a file and the player in the client device interprets them. "

What is sustainability?

In literal meaning, sustainability is an adjective for something that can be sustained. Something bearable, or capable of being continued at a certain level. It focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. The sustainability concept is composed of three pillars economic, environmental and social can also be known as profits, planet, and people. Sustainability encourages organizations to make decisions in terms of long-term impact on environment, social and human life. It encourages them to consider more factors than simply the immediate profit or loss involved.

Tt

What is telecom?

Telecom sector companies are those that make communication possible through phone or internet, or airwaves through wires or wirelessly. These companies create an infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio, or video to be sent. The telecom industry began in the 1830s when the telegraph was invented. With every new invention, the telephone, the radio, television, computer, and mobile device the industry broadened. Earlier telecommunication required physical wires, since technology has gone mobile wireless digital technology is becoming prominent. Telecom sector consists of three sub-sectors telecom equipment, telecom services, and wireless communication. Telecom sector's biggest challenge is to keep up with demand for faster data and better connections. Companies that meet these demands are successful.

What is telecom infrastructure?

Telecom sector companies are those that make communication possible through phone or internet, or airwaves through wires or wirelessly. These companies create an infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio, or video to be sent. The telecom industry began in the 1830s when the telegraph was invented. With every new invention, the telephone, the radio, television, computer, and mobile device the industry broadened. Earlier telecommunication required physical wires, since technology has gone mobile wireless digital technology is becoming prominent. Telecom sector consists of three sub-sectors telecom equipment, telecom services, and wireless communication. Telecom sector's biggest challenge is to keep up with demand for faster data and better connections. Companies that meet these demands are successful.

Uu

What is UMTS?

UMTS refers to Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service. It encompasses a group of radio technologies associated with third-generation cellular networks. UMTS uses Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology at the same time it has wider bandwidth than other CDMA-based systems so it is also referred to as wideband CDMA or W-CDMA. Video calling and mobile television capabilities were introduced by UMTS. UMTS has much higher data transfer rates and uses less power to upload or download data as compared to older technologies.UMTS uses a packet-switched system that allows cellular devices to send small packets of data to their destination.

What are undersea cables?

Communication cable laid on the sea bed connecting two land-based stations to transmit signals across stretches of sea, ocean lagoon or lake is called undersae communications cable. The first submarine communications cable laying started in 1850s.Modern cables are optical fibre cables that carry digital data including telephone, internet and private data traffic. The first fibre optic cable used under the sea was TAT-8 which went into operation in 1988. Earlier, submarine cables were simple point-to-point cables but with development of submarine branching units more than one destination can be served by single cable system. Two types of submarine cables are available unrepeatered and repeatered.

Vv

What is VoLTE?

VoLTE stands for Voice over Long Term Evolution. It is a digital packet voice service delivered over IP via LTE access network utilizing IMS technology. Voice calls over LTE are recognized as the progression of voice services across mobile networks, deploying LTE radio access technology. VoLTE provides efficient use of spectrum than traditional voice. It meets the demand for richer and more reliable service. VoLTE eliminates the need for separate voice and data networks. VoLTE delivers a crisp calling experience. Call establishment times are quick. VoLTE can be deployed in parallel with video calls over LTE and RCS multimedia services which include video share, messaging, chat and file transfer.

Ww

Is Wi-Fi 6 really better?

Wi-Fi 6 is the next generation of Wi-Fi. It is not only about faster speed but its impact is nuanced. Wi-Fi 6 will do the same basic thing i.e. connect you to the internet but will do with a bunch of additional technologies that make it happen more efficiently. Instead of boosting the speed of individual devices Wi-Fi 6 is about improving the network when a bunch of devices is connected. As the number of Wi-Fi devices increases, this is going to be a major requirement. Added devices take a toll on the network. A router can only communicate with so many devices at once, the more gadgets demanding Wi-Fi the more network overall is going to slow down. Wi-Fi 6 introduces new technologies to help overcome issues that come with putting more devices on a single Wi-Fi network.

What wi-fi stands for?

Wi-Fi stands for a family of wireless network protocols which is based on the IEEE 802.11 standards of the family. These are used for local area networking of devices and internet access for nearby digital devices to exchange data over radio waves. Wi-Fi is not an acronym instead it is a trademark by non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance. It is used to certify products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing. Wi-Fi stations communicate by exchanging data packets sent and delivered over the radio. This is done by modulating and demodulating carrier waves. Wi-Fi's wavebands have high absorption and best work for line-of-sight. Common obstructions like walls, pillars, home appliances, etc. reduce the range.